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Psittacosis

  • Definition
    • Psittacosis is an infection caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, a type of bacteria found in the droppings of birds. Birds spread the infection to humans.

  • Alternative Names
    • Ornithosis; Chlamydia psittaci

  • Causes
    • Psittacosis is a rare disease. Only 100 to 200 cases are reported each year in the United States.

      Bird owners, pet shop employees, persons who work in poultry processing plants, and veterinarians are at increased risk for this infection. Typical birds involved are parrots, parakeets, and budgerigars, although other birds have also caused the disease.

  • Symptoms
  • Exams and Tests
  • Treatment
    • The infection is treated with antibiotics. Doxycycline is used first. Other antibiotics that may be prescribed include:

      • Macrolides
      • Fluoroquinolones
      • Other tetracycline antibiotics

      Note: Tetracycline and doxycycline by mouth are usually not prescribed for children until after all their permanent teeth have started to grow in, because they can permanently discolor teeth that are still forming. These medicines are also not prescribed to pregnant women. Other antibiotics are used in these situations.

  • Outlook (Prognosis)
    • A full recovery is expected if you do not have any other conditions that affect your health.

  • Possible Complications
      • Brain involvement
      • Decreased lung function as a result of the pneumonia
      • Heart valve infection
      • Inflammation of the liver (hepatitis)
  • When to Contact a Medical Professional
    • Antibiotics are needed to treat this infection. If you develop symptoms of psittacosis, call your health care provider.

  • Prevention
    • Avoid exposure to birds that may carry these bacteria, such as imported parakeets. Medical problems that lead to a weak immune system increase your risk for this disease and should be treated appropriately.

  • References
    • Limper AH. Overview of pneumonia. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 97.

      Torres A. Pyogenic bacterial pneumonia and lung abscess. In: Mason RJ, Broaddus CV, Martin TR, et al. Murray & Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap 32.