Gilbert disease

  • Definition
    • Gilbert disease is a common disorder passed down through families. It affects the way bilirubin is processed by the liver, and causes the skin to take on a yellow color (jaundice).

  • Alternative Names
    • Icterus intermittens juvenilis; Low-grade chronic hyperbilirubinemia; Familial non-hemolytic-non-obstructive jaundice; Constitutional liver dysfunction; Unconjugated benign bilirubinemia

  • Causes
    • Gilbert disease affects 1 in 10 people in some white groups.

  • Symptoms
    • Symptoms may include:

      • Fatigue
      • Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (mild jaundice)

      In people with Gilbert disease, jaundice most often appears during times of exertion, stress, and infection, or when they do not eat.

  • Exams and Tests
    • A blood test for bilirubin shows changes that occur with Gilbert disease. The total bilirubin level is mildly elevated, with most being unconjugated bilirubin. Most often the total level is less than 2 mg/dL, and the conjugated bilirubin level is normal.

      Gilbert disease is linked to a genetic problem, but genetic testing is not needed.

  • Treatment
    • No treatment is necessary for Gilbert disease.

  • Outlook (Prognosis)
    • Jaundice may come and go throughout life. It is more likely to appear during illnesses such as colds. It does not cause health problems. However, it can confuse the results of tests for jaundice.

  • Possible Complications
    • There are no known complications.

  • When to Contact a Medical Professional
    • Call your health care provider if you have jaundice or pain in the abdomen that does not go away.

  • Prevention
    • There is no proven prevention.

  • References
    • Berk PD, Korenblat KM. Approach to the patient with jaundice or abnormal liver test results In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 149.

      Lidofsky SD. Jaundice. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap 20.

      Theise ND. Liver and gallbladder. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 18.