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Von Gierke disease

  • Definition
    • Von Gierke disease is a condition in which the body cannot break down glycogen. Glycogen is a form of sugar (glucose) that is stored in the liver and muscles. It is normally broken down into glucose to give you more energy when you need it.

      Von Gierke disease is also called Type I glycogen storage disease (GSD I).

  • Alternative Names
    • Type I glycogen storage disease

  • Causes
    • Von Gierke disease occurs when the body lacks the protein (enzyme) that releases glucose from glycogen. This causes abnormal amounts of glycogen to build up in certain tissues. When glycogen is not broken down properly, it leads to low blood sugar.

      Von Gierke disease is inherited, which means it is passed down through families. If both parents carry a nonworking copy of the gene related to this condition, each of their children has a 25% (1 in 4) chance of developing the disease.

  • Symptoms
    • These are symptoms of Von Gierke disease:

      • Constant hunger and need to eat often
      • Easy bruising and nosebleeds
      • Fatigue
      • Irritability
      • Puffy cheeks, thin chest and limbs, and swollen belly
  • Exams and Tests
  • Treatment
    • The goal of treatment is to avoid low blood sugar. Eat frequently during the day, especially foods that contain carbohydrates (starches). Older children and adults may take cornstarch by mouth to increase their carbohydrate intake.

      In some children, a feeding tube is placed through their nose into the stomach to provide sugars or uncooked cornstarch throughout the night. The tube can be taken out each morning.

      A medicine to lower uric acid in the blood and decrease the risk for gout may be prescribed. Your provider may also prescribe medicines to treat kidney disease, high lipids, and to increase the cells that fight infection.

      People with Von Gierke disease cannot properly break down fruit or milk sugar. It is best to avoid these products.

  • Support Groups
  • Outlook (Prognosis)
    • With treatment, growth, puberty, and quality of life have improved for people with Von Gierke disease. Those who are identified and carefully treated at a young age can live into adulthood.

      Early treatment also decreases the rate of severe problems such as:

  • Possible Complications
    • These complications can occur:

      • Frequent infection
      • Gout
      • Kidney failure
      • Liver tumors
      • Osteoporosis (thinning bones)
      • Seizures, lethargy, confusion due to low blood sugar
      • Short height
      • Underdeveloped secondary sexual characteristics (breasts, pubic hair)
      • Ulcers of the mouth or bowel
  • When to Contact a Medical Professional
    • Call your provider if you have a family history of glycogen storage disease or early infant death due to low blood sugar.

  • Prevention
    • There is no simple way to prevent glycogen storage disease.

      Couples who wish to have a baby may seek genetic counseling and testing to determine their risk for passing on Von Gierke disease.

  • References
    • Laforet P, Weinstein DA, Peter G, Smit A. The glycogen storage diseases and related disorders. In: Saudubray JM, van den Berghe G, Walter JH, eds. Inborn Metabolic Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment. 5th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2012:chap 6.

      Santos BL, Souza CFM, Schuler-Faccini L, et al. Glycogen storage disease type 1: clinical and laboratory profile. J de Pediatra. 2014;90(6):572-579.