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Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome

  • Definition
    • Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome is an eye problem that is similar to conjunctivitis ("pink eye"). It usually affects only one eye and occurs with swollen lymph nodes and an illness with a fever.

      Note: Parinaud syndrome is a different disorder in which you are unable to look up. This can be caused by a brain tumor, and requires an immediate evaluation by your health care provider.

  • Alternative Names
    • Cat scratch disease; Oculoglandular syndrome

  • Causes
    • Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome (POS) is caused by an infection with bacteria, a virus, fungus, or parasite.

      The most common causes are cat scratch disease and tularemia (rabbit fever). The bacteria that cause either condition can infect the eye. The bacteria can directly enter the eye (on a finger or other object), or air droplets that carry the bacteria can land on the eye.

      Other infectious diseases may spread the same way, or through the bloodstream to the eye.

  • Symptoms
      • Red, irritated, and painful eye (looks like "pink eye")
      • Fever
      • General ill feeling
      • Increased tearing (possible)
      • Swelling of nearby lymph glands (often in front of the ear)
  • Exams and Tests
    • An examination shows:

      • Fever and other signs of illness
      • Red, tender, inflamed eye
      • Tender lymph nodes may be present in front of the ear
      • There may be growths (conjunctival nodules) on the inside of the eyelid or the white of the eye

      Blood tests will be done to check for infection. The white blood cell count may be high or low, depending on the cause of the infection.

      A blood test to check antibody levels is the main method used to diagnose many of the infections that cause POS. Other tests may include:

  • Treatment
    • Depending on the cause of the infection, antibiotics may be helpful. Surgery may be necessary in rare cases to clean away the infected tissues.

  • Outlook (Prognosis)
    • The outlook depends on the cause of the infection. In general, if the diagnosis is made early and treatment starts immediately, the outcome of POS can be very good.

  • Possible Complications
    • Serious complications are rare.

      The conjunctival nodules can sometimes form sores (ulcers) during the healing process. The infection can spread to nearby tissues or into the bloodstream.

  • When to Contact a Medical Professional
    • You should call your health care provider if you develop a red, irritated, painful eye.

  • Prevention
    • Frequent hand washing can reduce the likelihood of getting POS. Avoid being scratched by a cat, even a healthy cat. You can avoid tularemia by not having contact with wild rabbits, squirrels, or ticks.

  • References
    • Rolain JM, Raoult D. Bartonella infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 323.

      Tu EY. Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology. 15th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:chap 4.