Throat or larynx cancer

  • Definition
    • Throat cancer is cancer of the vocal cords, larynx (voice box), or other areas of the throat.

  • Alternative Names
    • Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx

  • Causes
    • People who smoke or use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long time also increases risk. Smoking and drinking alcohol combined lead to an increased risk for throat cancer.

      Most throat cancers develop in adults older than 50. Men are more likely than women to develop throat cancer.

      Cancer of the throat or larynx
  • Symptoms
    • Symptoms of throat cancer include any of the following:

      • Abnormal (high-pitched) breathing sounds
      • Cough
      • Coughing up blood
      • Difficulty swallowing
      • Hoarseness that does not get better in 3 to 4 weeks
      • Neck or ear pain
      • Sore throat that does not get better in 2 to 3 weeks, even with antibiotics
      • Swelling or lumps in the neck
      • Weight loss not due to dieting
  • Exams and Tests
  • Treatment
    • The goal of treatment is to completely remove the cancer and prevent it from spreading to other parts of the body.

      When the tumor is small, either surgery or radiation therapy alone can be used to remove the tumor.

      When the tumor is larger or has spread to lymph nodes in the neck, a combination of radiation and chemotherapy is often used to save the voice box (vocal cords). If this is not possible, the voice box is removed. This surgery is called laryngectomy.

  • Support Groups
    • You can ease the stress of illness by joining a cancer support group. Sharing with others who have common experiences and problems can help you not feel alone.

  • Outlook (Prognosis)
    • Throat cancers may be cured when detected early. If the cancer has spread (metastasized) to surrounding tissues or lymph nodes in the neck, about half of patients can be cured. If the cancer has spread to parts of the body outside the head and neck, the cancer is not curable. Treatment is aimed at prolonging and improving quality of life.

      After treatment, therapy is needed to help with speech and swallowing. If the person is not able to swallow, a feeding tube will be needed.

  • Possible Complications
    • Complications of this type of cancer may include:

      • Airway obstruction
      • Difficulty swallowing
      • Disfigurement of the neck or face
      • Hardening of the skin of the neck
      • Loss of voice and speaking ability
      • Spread of the cancer to other body areas (metastasis)
  • When to Contact a Medical Professional
    • Call your provider if:

      • You have symptoms of throat cancer, especially hoarseness or a change in voice with no obvious cause that lasts longer than 3 weeks
      • You find a lump in your neck that does not go away in 3 weeks
  • Prevention
    • Do not smoke or use other tobacco. Limit or avoid alcohol use.

  • References
    • Armstrong WB, Vokes DE, Verma SP. Malignant tumors of the larynx. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 106.

      National Cancer Institute. PDQ laryngeal cancer treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Date last modified: July 23, 2014. Available at: Accessed: January 4, 2016.

      National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology (NCCN guidelines): Head and neck cancers. Version 1.2015. Available at: Accessed: January 4, 2016.