Expressive language disorder - developmental

  • Definition
    • Developmental expressive language disorder is a condition in which a child has lower than normal ability in vocabulary, saying complex sentences, and remembering words. However, a child with this disorder may have the normal language skills needed to understand verbal or written communication.

  • Alternative Names
    • Language disorder - expressive; Specific language impairment

  • Causes
    • Expressive language disorder is common in school-aged children.

      The causes are not well understood. Damage to the cerebrum of the brain and malnutrition may cause some cases. Genetic factors may also be involved.

  • Symptoms
    • Children with an expressive language disorder have a hard time getting their meaning or message across to others.

      Symptoms of this disorder may include any of the following:

      • Below-average vocabulary skills
      • Improper use of tenses (past, present, future)
      • Problems making complex sentences
      • Problems remembering words
  • Exams and Tests
    • Standardized expressive language and nonverbal intellectual tests should be conducted if an expressive language disorder is suspected. Testing for other learning disabilities may also be needed.

  • Treatment
    • Language therapy is the best method to treat this type of disorder. The goal is to increase the number of phrases a child can use. This is done by using block-building techniques and speech therapy.

  • Outlook (Prognosis)
    • How much the child recovers depends on the severity of the disorder. With reversible factors, such as vitamin deficiencies, there may be nearly full recovery.

      Children who do not have any other developmental or motor coordination problems have the best outlook (prognosis). Often, such children have a family history of delays in language milestones, but eventually catch up.

  • Possible Complications
    • This disorder may lead to:

      • Learning problems
      • Low self-esteem
      • Social problems
  • When to Contact a Medical Professional
    • If you are concerned about a child's language development, have the child tested.

  • Prevention
    • Good nutrition during pregnancy, and early childhood and prenatal care may help.

  • References
    • Nass R, Trauner DA. Developmental language disorders. In: Swaiman K, Ashwal S, Ferriero DM, Schor NF, eds. Swaiman's Pediatric Neurology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2012:chap 45.

      Simms MD. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 35.