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Developmental milestones record - 5 years

  • Definition
    • This article describes the expected skills and growth markers of most 5-year-old children.

  • Alternative Names
    • Normal childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Growth milestones for children - 5 years; Well child - 5 years

  • Information
    • Physical and motor skill milestones for a typical 5-year-old child include:

      • Gains about 4 to 5 pounds (1.8 to 2.25 kilograms)
      • Grows about 2 to 3 inches (5 to 7.5 centimeters)
      • Vision reaches 20/20
      • First adult teeth start breaking through the gum (most children do not get their first adult teeth until age 6)
      • Has better coordination (getting the arms, legs, and body to work together)
      • Skips, jumps, and hops with good balance
      • Stays balanced while standing on one foot with eyes closed
      • Shows more skill with simple tools and writing utensils
      • Can copy a triangle
      • Can use a knife to spread soft foods

      Sensory and mental milestones:

      • Has a vocabulary of more than 2,000 words
      • Speaks in sentences of 5 or more words, and with all parts of speech
      • Can identify different coins
      • Can count to 10
      • Knows telephone number
      • Can properly name the primary colors, and possibly many more colors
      • Asks deeper questions that address meaning and purpose
      • Can answer "why" questions
      • Is more responsible and says "I'm sorry" when he or she makes mistakes
      • Shows less aggressive behavior
      • Outgrows earlier childhood fears
      • Accepts other points of view (but may not understand them)
      • Has improved math skills
      • Questions others, including parents
      • Strongly identifies with the parent of the same sex
      • Has a group of friends
      • Likes to imagine and pretend while playing (for example, pretends to take a trip to the moon)

      Ways to encourage a 5-year-old's development include:

      • Reading together
      • Providing enough space for the child to be active
      • Teaching the child how to take part in -- and learn the rules of -- sports and games
      • Encouraging the child to play with other children, which helps develop social skills
      • Playing creatively with the child
      • Limiting both the time and content of television and computer viewing
      • Visiting local areas of interest
      • Encouraging the child to perform small household chores, such as helping set the table or picking up toys after playing
  • References
    • Feigelman S. The preschool years. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 12.

      Keane VA. Assessment of growth. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 15.