Face pain

  • Definition
    • Face pain may be dull and throbbing or an intense, stabbing discomfort in the face or forehead. It can occur in one or both sides.

  • Causes
    • Pain that starts in the face may be caused by a nerve problem, injury, or infection. Face pain may also begin in other places in the body.

      • Abscessed tooth (ongoing throbbing pain on one side of the lower face that gets worse with eating or touching)
      • Cluster headache
      • Herpes zoster (shingles) or herpes simplex (cold sores) infection
      • Injury to the face
      • Migraine
      • Myofascial pain syndrome
      • Sinusitis or sinus infection (dull pain and tenderness around the eyes and cheekbones that gets worse when you bend forward)
      • Tic douloureux
      • Temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome

      Sometimes the reason for the face pain is unknown.

  • Home Care
    • Your treatment will be based on the cause of your pain.

      Painkillers may provide temporary relief. If the pain is severe or does not go away, call your primary health care provider or dentist.

  • When to Contact a Medical Professional
    • Call your provider if:

      • Face pain is accompanied by chest, shoulder, neck, or arm pain. This could mean a heart attack. Call your local emergency number (such as 911).
      • Pain is throbbing, worse on one side of the face, and aggravated by eating. Call a dentist.
      • Pain is persistent, unexplained, or accompanied by other unexplained symptoms. Call your primary provider.
  • What to Expect at Your Office Visit
    • If you have an emergency condition (such as a possible heart attack), you will first be stabilized. Then, the provider will ask about your symptoms and medical history and do a physical exam. You will be referred to a dentist for tooth problems.

      You may have the following tests:

      Neurological tests will be performed if nerve damage could be a problem.

  • References
    • Bartleson JD, Black DF, Swanson JW. Cranial and facial pain. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 18.

      Digre KB. Headaches and other head pain. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 398.