Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a condition that affects blood circulation
in places outside of the heart and brain, such as in the arms, legs or kidneys.
PAD is caused by the narrowing of blood vessels and arteries due to a buildup of
plaque (fatty deposits) known as atherosclerosis. This silent, progressive process
limits the blood flow that is vital for tissue and organ survival.
Some of the most commonly affected arteries are those in the legs, from your buttocks
to your feet. Symptoms usually occur at the end stage of this disease, when the
blockage causes limited blood flow to the legs. However, almost 80 percent of people
with PAD do not have any symptoms at all but are at a high risk for heart attack,
stroke and death. Due to this silent process, early diagnosis is very important
in preventing serious complications associated with PAD.
PAD can present as a chronic condition that causes claudication (pain in the calves,
thighs or buttocks when walking which resolves at rest) or as an acute condition
(critical limb ischemia) which occurs due to an embolus or a blood clot that obstruct
the blood flow to the limb. This is an emergent condition that requires urgent intervention
for limb salvage.
Our team of cardiovascular specialists are leaders in effectively diagnosing, treating
and managing PAD. Patients who are diagnosed early and receive aggressive medical
treatment may be able to avoid serious health problems.
Who Is at Risk of Developing PAD?
There are several risk factors including family history, age, diabetes, tobacco
use and diagnosed coronary artery disease. If a patient already had a heart attack
or a stroke, they should be evaluated for PAD. Other factors include being obese;
having an inactive lifestyle, high blood pressure and high cholesterol. If a patient
has one of more of these factors, their health should be actively monitored by a
primary care physician and, if needed, a cardiovascular specialist. If patients
are over 70 years of age, they should be screened for PAD, especially if they have
two or more risk factors.
Symptoms of PAD
The symptoms of PAD depend on which area of the body is affected. When a blood vessel
of the leg or arm is affected, patients will feel cramping, heaviness, pain or discomfort
in the legs, particularly in the calves, buttocks or arms with activity. They may
- Burning or aching pain in the feet and toes while resting, especially at night while
- Changes in skin temperature in the legs, feet or toes
- Erectile dysfunction
- Increased occurrence of infection
- Loss of hair in the chin area
- Numbness or tingling in the legs, feet or toes
- Redness or other color changes in the skin
- Toe and foot sores that do not heal
When PAD affects blood vessels of the kidneys, symptoms include sudden high blood
pressure (hypertension) or blood pressure that is difficult or impossible to control
with medication. When left untreated, PAD affecting the kidneys can result in kidney
Our specialists have access to the latest research in diagnosing and treating PAD
and use some of the region’s most advanced technology to establish the extent
of the condition. A thorough medical history and physical exam, along with an assessment
of risk factors, is performed and several diagnostic tests are available to confirm
the presence of PAD and determine the appropriate course of treatment. Most of these
tests are non-invasive and painless, including:
- Angiography is a minimally invasive procedure that inserts a small
catheter in the artery and injects dye to define the degree of blockage in your
arteries. (This is the “Gold Standard” procedure.)
- Ankle brachial index (ABI) compares blood pressure in the ankle
and in the arm using a regular blood pressure cuff and a Doppler ultrasound device.
- CT Angiogram (CTA) is a non-invasive procedure to define the degree
of blockage with an injected dye.
- Magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) is used to obtain images of
blood vessels and their function inside the body.
- Multi-level ABI (also called segmental ABI) places cuffs on each
calf, above the knees and at the thighs, in addition to the arms and ankles. This
reading will help pinpoint where in the arteries the blockages occur.
- Pulse volume recordings (PVR) is a noninvasive vascular test in
which blood pressure cuffs and Doppler are used to get information about arterial
blood flow in the arms and the legs. This information is then used to determine
the presence, severity and general location of peripheral vascular disease.
- Single-level ABI places cuffs on the upper arms and at the ankles
while a Doppler (probe) is placed on the pulse at the feet to hear the sound of
- Stress ABI is used when patients have intermittent claudication
(too little blood flow) which can cause severe muscle cramping in the legs, calves,
buttocks or arms as the result of exercise. After the multi-level ABI is performed,
the patient is placed on a treadmill for five minutes, or until they are unable
to continue walking. Pressures are recorded as soon as possible.
- Ultrasound imaging is a non-invasive study of the affected vessels
using Doppler (high velocity sound waves) to assess the degree of blockage.
By taking a whole-person approach to individualized treatment plans, our cardiovascular
specialists are able to determine optimal therapies for each patient. Recommendations
may include lifestyle changes, medications or in severe cases, more aggressive treatment.
- Lifestyle Changes
Adopting a healthier lifestyle can make a significant difference for people with
PAD. Our specialists are here to help patients with the right information and encouragement
to make changes that can include:
- Beginning a regular exercise program, such as walking, which can aid the treatment
of PAD. Patients who walk regularly can expect a marked improvement in the distance
they are able to walk before experiencing leg pain. Exercising at our closely monitored
cardiac rehabilitation program may be a good option.
- Controlling diabetes by taking prescribed medications and seeing a doctor regularly
- Controlling blood pressure with diet, exercise and, when needed, medication
- Eating a high-fiber, low-fat, low-cholesterol, low-sodium diet. Limit fat to 30
percent of the total daily calories. Avoid trans fats, including products made with
partially hydrogenated and hydrogenated vegetable oils.
- Maintaining a healthy weight
- Managing stress in a healthy way
- Quitting smoking. Ask the doctor about smoking cessation programs available in the
A number of established and advanced medications are used to treat PAD. These may
- Blood pressure medication to control blood pressure.
- Blood thinning medication to help reduce the risk of blood clots.
- Statin medication to reduce cholesterol levels.
- Interventional Procedures
When other therapies are not enough and in stages of advanced PAD, interventional
procedures may be needed to provide relief. These can include:
- Angioplasty is a non-surgical procedure in which a specialist accesses
narrowed arteries by using a catheter and a balloon to access the affected artery
and open the blockage.
- Atherectomy or thrombectomy remove blockages or obstructions like
plaque, calcium, or clots. There are different types of atherectomy devices according
to the type of the lesion. (Laser, Orbital, Directional). In case of blood clot,
thrombectomy devices or infuse medication are used to break the clots.
- Bypass grafting is a procedure in which a surgeon uses an artery
from the chest or wrist or a vein from the leg to bypass arteries that have been
narrowed due to peripheral vascular disease.
- Stenting is when a mesh device is taken to the affected artery
with a catheter to support the cleared vessel and keep it open. There are stents
that are balloon expandable or self- expandable and some are coated with medications
to prevent scar tissue from building up inside the stent.
Why Choose UF Health for Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Disease
As part of a leading academic health center, the specialists who staff our PAD Program
are professors and researchers in one of the nation’s largest cardiovascular
training programs. We have experts in endovascular interventions using state-of-the-art
techniques and technology to treat the most difficult cases, perform a large number
of below-the-knee, and limb-salvage procedures. UF Health Jacksonville participates
in innovative research and has access to the latest equipment to treat PAD with
more options than other facilities, which in many cases means better outcomes for
our cardiovascular patients.
Frequently Asked Questions
Is there a cure for PAD?
There is no cure for PAD, but by quitting smoking, exercising regularly, limiting
fat and following a healthy diet, while managing your risk factors, you can help
to reduce the progression of the disease.
Who is at risk of developing PAD?
You are at an increased risk for developing PAD if you:
- Are African-American
- Have diabetes
- Have been diagnosed with heart disease
- Have a family history of PAD
- Have high blood pressure
- Have high cholesterol
- Have a history of stroke
- Lead an inactive lifestyle
- Are obese
- Are over 50 years old
What other problems can occur from PAD?
If left untreated, patients with PAD can develop serious health problems, including:
- Heart attack
- Renal artery disease or stenosis
- Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
Jacksonville Peripheral Vascular Disease Specialists
Peripheral Vascular Disease Program Locations
4555 Emerson Street
Jacksonville, FL 32207
5th Floor, Ambulatory Care Center
655 West 8th Street
Jacksonville, FL 32209
15255 Max Leggett Parkway
Jacksonville, FL 32218