Calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood are kept in very tight balance. Too little calcium may interfere with nerve function; too much may cause kidney stones or the deposit of calcium in places that cause pain or interfere with the flow of blood.
Parathyroid diseases, both over-secretion (hyperparathyroidism) or under-secretion (hypoparathyroidism) of parathyroid hormone, are managed by endocrinologists. Evaluation involves an assessment of fracture risk most often with bone densitometry by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA or DEXA), as well as blood and urine tests to determine the location of the problem. Both surgical and medical options are weighed to accomplish the best outcome for the patient.