Proteinuria results when protein normally found in the bloodstream appears in the urine. This is typically due to a leak through the small filters that make up the kidney. Many diseases can cause protein to leak into the urine, including diabetes.
The evaluation of proteinuria is performed in the outpatient nephrology clinic and involves blood and urine tests. Some patients require further testing in radiology and/or follow-up blood or urine testing based on the results of the initial evaluation.
When the cause of proteinuria and/or the proper therapy cannot be determined in the clinic, a kidney biopsy is generally recommended.