Esophageal stricture - benign

  • Definition
    • Benign esophageal stricture is a narrowing of the esophagus (the tube from the mouth to the stomach). It causes swallowing difficulties.

      Benign means that it is not caused by cancer of the esophagus.

  • Causes
    • Esophageal stricture can be caused by:

      • Gastroesophageal reflux (GERD)
      • Eosinophilic esophagitis
      • Injuries caused by an endoscope
      • Long-term use of a nasogastric (NG) tube (tube through the nose into the stomach)
      • Swallowing substances that harm the lining of the esophagus. These may include household cleaners, lye, disc batteries, or battery acid.
      • Treatment of esophageal varices
  • Symptoms
  • Exams and Tests
    • You may need the following tests:

  • Treatment
    • Dilation (stretching) of the esophagus is the main treatment for acid reflux related strictures. You may need to have this treatment repeated after a period of time to prevent the stricture from narrowing again.

      Proton pump inhibitors (acid-blocking medicines) can keep a peptic stricture from returning. Surgery is rarely needed.

      If you have eosinophilic esophagitis, you may need to take medicines or make changes to your diet to reduce the inflammation. In some cases, dilation is done.

  • Outlook (Prognosis)
    • The stricture may come back in the future. This would require a repeat dilation.

  • Possible Complications
    • Swallowing problems may keep you from getting enough fluids and nutrients. Solid food, especially meat, can get stuck above the stricture. If this happens, endoscopy would be needed to remove the lodged food.

      There is also a higher risk of having food, fluid, or vomit enter the lungs with regurgitation. This can cause choking or aspiration pneumonia.

  • When to Contact a Medical Professional
    • Call your health care provider if you have swallowing problems that do not go away.

  • Prevention
    • Use safety measures to avoid swallowing substances that can harm your esophagus. Keep dangerous chemicals out of the reach of children. See your doctor if you have GERD.

  • References
    • Ginsberg GG, Pfau PR. Foreign bodies, bezoards, and caustic ingestions. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap 25.