Coronavirus (COVID-19) updates, visitor restrictions and resources →

Vulva cancer

  • Definition
    • Vulvar cancer is cancer that starts in the vulva. Vulvar cancer most often affects the labia, the folds of skin outside the vagina. In some cases, vulvar cancer starts on the clitoris or in glands on the sides of the vaginal opening.

  • Alternative Names
    • Cancer - vulva; Cancer - perineum; Cancer - vulvar; Genital warts - vulvar cancer; HPV - vulvar cancer

  • Causes
    • Most vulvar cancers begin in skin cells called squamous cells. Other types of cancers found on the vulva are:

      • Adenocarcinoma
      • Basal cell carcinoma
      • Melanoma
      • Sarcoma

      Vulvar cancer is rare. Risk factors include:

      • Human papilloma virus (HPV, or genital warts) infection in women under age 50
      • Chronic skin changes such as lichen sclerosis or squamous hyperplasia in women over age 50
      • History of cervical cancer or vaginal cancer
      • Smoking

      Women with a condition called vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) have a high risk of developing vulvar cancer that spreads. Most cases of VIN, though, never lead to cancer.

  • Symptoms
    • Women with this condition will often have itching around the vagina for years. They may have used different skin creams. They may also have bleeding.

      Other skin changes that may occur around the vulva:

      • Mole or freckle, which may be pink, red, white, or gray
      • Skin thickening or lump
      • Skin sore (ulcer)

      Other symptoms:

      Some women with vulvar cancer have no symptoms.

  • Exams and Tests
    • The following tests are used to diagnose vulvar cancer:

  • Treatment
    • Treatment involves surgery to remove the cancer cells. If the tumor is large (more than 2 cm) or has grown deeply into the skin, the lymph nodes in the groin area may also be removed.

      Radiation, with or without chemotherapy, may be used to treat advanced tumors or vulvar cancer that comes back.

  • Support Groups
    • You can ease the stress of illness by joining a cancer support group. Sharing with others who have common experiences and problems can help you not feel alone.

  • Outlook (Prognosis)
    • Most women with vulvar cancer who are diagnosed and treated at an early stage do well. But a woman's outcome depends on:

      • The size of the tumor
      • The type of vulvar cancer
      • Whether the cancer has spread

      The cancer commonly comes back at or near the site of the original tumor.

  • Possible Complications
    • Complications may include:

      • Spread of the cancer to other areas of the body
      • Side effects of radiation, surgery, or chemotherapy
  • When to Contact a Medical Professional
    • Call your health care provider if you have any of these symptoms for more than 2 weeks:

      • Local irritation
      • Skin color change
      • Sore on the vulva
  • Prevention
    • Practicing safer sex may decrease your risk of vulvar cancer. This includes using condoms to protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

      A vaccine is available to protect against certain forms of HPV infection. The vaccine is approved to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts. It may help prevent other cancers linked to HPV, such as vulvar cancer. The vaccine is given to young girls before they become sexually active, and to adolescents and women up to age 26.

      Routine pelvic exams can help diagnose vulvar cancer at an earlier stage. Earlier diagnosis improves your chances that treatment will be successful.

  • References
    • Jhingran A, Russell AH, Seiden MV, et al. Cancers of the cervix, vulva, and vagina. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 87.

      National Cancer Institute: PDQ Vulvar Cancer Treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Updated February 11, 2016. Accessed March 17, 2016.

      Russell AH, Horowitz NS. Cancers of the vulva and vagina. In: Gunderson LL, ed. Gunderson and Tepper: Clinical Radiation Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 60.