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  • Definition
    • Anorchia is the absence of both testes at birth.

  • Alternative Names
    • Vanishing testes - anorchia; Empty scrotum - anorchia; Scrotum - empty (anorchia)

  • Causes
    • The embryo develops early sex organs in the first several weeks after the egg is fertilized. If early testes do not develop in males before 8 weeks into the pregnancy, the baby will have female genitals.

      If the testes disappear between 8 and 10 weeks, the baby will be born with ambiguous genitalia. This means the child will have parts of both male and female genitals.

      However, if the testes disappear between 12 and 14 weeks, the baby will have normal male genitals (penis and scrotum), but no testes. This is known as congenital anorchia, or the "vanishing testes syndrome."

      The cause is unknown. Genetic factors may be involved in some cases. .

      This condition should not be confused with bilateral undescended testes, in which the testes are located in the abdomen or groin.

  • Symptoms
    • Symptoms include:

      • Normal outside genitals before puberty
      • Failure to start puberty at the correct time
  • Exams and Tests
    • Signs include:

      • Empty scrotum
      • Lack of male sex characteristics (penis and pubic hair growth, deepening of the voice, and increase in muscle mass)

      Tests include:

  • Treatment
    • Treatment includes:

      • Artificial (prosthetic) testicle implants
      • Male hormones (androgens)
      • Psychological support
  • Outlook (Prognosis)
    • The outlook is good with treatment.

  • Possible Complications
    • Complications include:

      • Face, neck, or back abnormalities in some cases
      • Infertility
      • Psychological problems due to gender
  • When to Contact a Medical Professional
    • Call your health care provider if a male child:

      • Appears to have extremely small or absent testicles
      • Does not seem to be starting puberty during his early teens
  • References