Abdominal wall surgery

  • Definition
    • Abdominal wall surgery is a procedure that improves the appearance of flabby, stretched-out abdominal (belly) muscles and skin. It is often called a tummy tuck. It can range from a simple mini-tummy tuck to more extensive surgery.

      Abdominal wall surgery is not the same as liposuction, which is another way to remove fat. But abdominal wall surgery is sometimes combined with liposuction.

  • Alternative Names
    • Cosmetic surgery of the abdomen; Tummy tuck; Abdominoplasty

  • Description
    • Your surgery will be done in an operating room in a hospital. You will receive general anesthesia. This will keep you asleep and pain-free during the procedure. The surgery takes 2 to 6 hours. You can expect to stay in the hospital for 1 to 3 days after surgery.

      After you receive anesthesia, your surgeon will make a cut (incision) across your abdomen to open up the area. This cut will be just above your pubic area.

      Your surgeon will remove fatty tissue and loose skin from the middle and lower sections of your abdomen to make it firmer and flatter. In extended surgeries, the surgeon also removes excess fat and skin (love handles) from the sides of the abdomen. Your abdominal muscles may be tightened also.

      Mini abdominoplasty is performed when there are areas of fat pockets (love handles). It can be done with much smaller cuts.

      Your surgeon will close your cut with sutures (stitches). Small tubes called drains may be inserted to allow fluid to drain out of your cut. These will be removed later.

      A firm elastic dressing (bandage) will be placed over your abdomen.

      For less complicated surgery, your surgeon may use a medical device called an endoscope. Endoscopes are tiny cameras that are inserted into the skin through very small cuts. They are connected to a video monitor in the operating room that allows the surgeon to see the area being worked on. Your surgeon will remove excess fat with other small tools that are inserted through other small cuts. This surgery is called endoscopic surgery.

  • Why the Procedure Is Performed
    • Most of the time, the surgery is called elective or cosmetic surgery because it is an operation you choose to have. It is not usually needed for health reasons. Cosmetic abdomen repair can help improve appearance, especially after a lot of weight gain or loss. It helps flatten the lower abdomen and tighten stretched skin.

      It may also help relieve skin rashes or infections that develop under large flaps of skin.

      Abdominoplasty can be helpful when:

      • Diet and exercise have not helped improve muscle tone, such as in women who have had more than one pregnancy.
      • Skin and muscle cannot regain its normal tone. This can be a problem for very overweight people who lost a lot of weight.

      Tummy tuck is major surgery. It is important to read about the procedure before having it.

      Abdominoplasty is not used as an alternative to weight loss.

  • Risks
    • Risks for anesthesia and surgery in general are:

      Risks of this surgery are:

      • Excessive scarring
      • Loss of skin
      • Nerve damage that can cause pain or numbness in part of your belly
      • Poor healing
  • Before the Procedure
    • Tell your surgeon or nurse:

      • If you could be pregnant
      • What medicines you are taking, even drugs, supplements, or herbs you bought without a prescription

      Before surgery:

      • Several days before surgery, you may be asked to stop taking medicines that make it hard for your blood to clot. These include aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
      • Ask your surgeon which drugs you should still take on the day of your surgery.
      • If you smoke, try to stop. Ask your health care provider for help. Smoking increases the risk for problems such as slow healing. Ask your doctor or nurse for help quitting.

      On the day of surgery:

      • Follow instructions about when to stop eating and drinking.
      • Take the drugs your surgeon told you to take with a small sip of water.
      • Arrive at the hospital on time.
  • After the Procedure
    • You will have some pain and discomfort for several days after surgery. Your surgeon will prescribe pain medicine to help you manage your pain. It may help to rest with your legs and hips bent during recovery to reduce pressure on your abdomen.

      Wearing an elastic support similar to a girdle for 2 to 3 weeks will provide extra support while you heal. You should avoid strenuous activity and anything that makes you strain for 4 to 6 weeks. You will probably be able to return to work in 2 to 4 weeks.

      Your scars will become flatter and lighter in color over the next year. DO NOT expose the area to sun, because it can worsen the scar and darken the color. Keep it covered when you are out in the sun.

  • Outlook (Prognosis)
    • Most people are happy with the results of abdominoplasty. Many feel a new sense of self-confidence.

  • References
    • McGrath MH, Pomerantz J. Plastic surgery. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 69.

      Neligan PC, Buck DW. Abdominoplasty. In: Neligan PC, Buck DW. Core Procedures in Plastic Surgery. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2014:chap 5.